Electrification of Transport

Cape Verde

Cape Verde has announced a 100% replacement of its conventional public and private vehicle fleet with electric vehicles (EVs) by 2050. They also plan to make all vehicles used by public administration officials electric and to establish a countrywide charging infrastructure by 2030. With this initiative, the government also hopes to address economic vulnerability by reducing the import of fossil fuel. Transport consumes 30% of the total imported fuel by the country to date. Three major steps mark its ambitious programme: 1) an Electric mobility policy charter that establishes the strategic vision for initial necessary conditions and long term frameworks for scaling up; 2) an Action plan for implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the efforts; 3) an inter-institutional Commission for Electric Mobility (CIME) for coordination with other sectors and policies. The government will be extending customs and investment incentives for EVs until they reach market maturity.

Innovative model to promote e-bike taxis in Rwanda


The Government of Rwanda has committed to transforming all its conventional motorbike taxis (mototaxis) into electric motorbike taxis (e-motos) as part of its larger electric mobility expansion plans. Out of all registered vehicles in Rwanda, 52% are conventional mototaxis. A demonstration phase of this transition is undergoing trials in the capital city of Kigali with the help of private sector players such as Ampersand and Safi. New e-moto technologies involving remodelled old motorbikes or battery swapping, as launched by Ampersand, are cheaper than conventional mototaxis. To counter the high upfront costs, Ampersand is offering an e-moto leasing model for taxi drivers. This model increases savings on every ride. E-motos reduce air pollution by one fourth of that of conventional motorbikes and deliver broader economic benefits: cheaper rides for the taxi users and reduced national dependence on imported fuel. Learn more about Ampersand here

Solar e-bikes for easy long distance travel in Namibia


SunCycles, a start-up in Namibia, is producing solar powered e-bikes for making travel feasible in difficult terrains and for long distances. The technology involves upgrading regular bicycles by attaching a small motor run by a solar-powered battery, which provides extra support and increased efficiency. In the cities, these retrofitted e-bikes can replace conventional four-wheeler and two-wheeler vehicles, thus avoiding carbon emissions and local air pollution. They are currently being used for green deliveries within city limits. In rural and remote areas, they make it possible to travel long distances, particularly seeking access to basic services such as clinics and schools. For instance, e-bikes are currently being used by security guards in game-reserves of Namibia. These bikes can run for 30-50 kilometers on one charge.

Demand incentive for promoting electric vehicles


As part of its electric mobility policy, India has set a target of achieving 30% electric vehicle market penetration by 2030. To achieve this ambitious target, India recently launched the Faster Adoption and Manufacture of Electric Vehicles (FAME) II Scheme, under the National Electric Mobility Plan, with the objective of generating demand and creating the initial market for all electric vehicles (EV), with an outlay of more than USD 1 billion. 86% of this fund will be utilised to offer fiscal incentives on the capital costs of EVs. With a strong emphasis on the public transportation sector, the scheme sets a target of 7,000 e-Buses, 500,000 e-3 wheelers, 55,000 e-4 wheeler passenger cars (including strong hybrids) and 1 million e-2 wheelers between 2019 and 2022. The Government will also invest in setting up charging infrastructure, with the active participation of the public sector and private players. 

Gorogo battery swapping stations for electric vehicles


While the prices of batteries and electric vehicles continue to drop significantly, the lack of charging infrastructure in cities remains a major obstacle for the transition to sustainable transport. Launched in 2015 in Taipei, the Gogoro Network offers one of the largest battery swapping systems in the world. Compared to plugged-in charging stations that can only charge one vehicle at a time, a single GoStation can serve 400 vehicles. Smart batteries technology adds an extra 27% capacity, enabling a riding distance of up to 170 kilometres with every swap. The batteries also carry data that allows the Gogoro Network to intelligently scale and distribute energy when and where it is most needed. With nearly 2,000 GoStations in Taiwan alone, the Gogoro Network has taken a comprehensive approach to the massive deployment of electric mobility.

Best Practices in Electric Mobility: UNIDO Discussion Paper


The shift to electric mobility is crucial to reduce climate emissions. Governments across the world need to take actions to encourage the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) in every mode of transport. Drawing from Asian and European experiences, UNIDO’s report identifies the opportunities and challenges of electric mobility as well as its political and geopolitical implications (international trade, energy security and competition over strategic resources). The sector faces economic barriers due to the high upfront costs of the transition as well as regulatory, technical and information challenges. 


This report provides comprehensive policy recommendations supported by examples on four main aspects of the successful introduction of EVs: 

  • the development of an inclusive national roadmap 

  • the development and funding of infrastructure

  • successful and innovative business models; and 

  • possible financing mechanisms. 

Electric vehicles powered by renewable energy


Electric vehicles powered by renewable energy are a real opportunity for small island developing states (SIDS) that usually have an abundance of sun and wind but are often heavily dependent on fossil fuels imports for electricity generation and transport. SIDS populations do not have large distances to be covered, which eliminates the range anxiety of electric vehicles, and their batteries can work as a backup in case of natural hazards.  


Megapower, an electric vehicles company operating in Barbados and other Caribbean islands, is a successful example of an effective enterprise engaged in the transition to electric vehicles powered by renewable energy. The company provides EVs, charging infrastructure and solar power in Barbados. Renewable energy is supplied to the EV network at solar powered charging stations.  Megapower has sold over 450 EVs including 35 electric powered buses and is currently generating approximately 2,000 kWh from solar photovoltaic systems across Barbados.